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Valentine.gr  

May 2005

Did you know that Passiflora ( Passion flower) got this name because it's believed that its flower parts represent the Passion of Jesus Christ?

Blue passionflower (Passiflora caerulea) the most common cultivated species.

Passiflora - Passion Flower (Passiflora spp.)

The gender of Passiflora consists of about 600, tender, evergreen and deciduous, climbing plants that are mainly natives of tropical South America.

Passiflora were introduced to Europe from South America in the Eighteenth Century, principally by the Spanish, & can now be found in many parts of the world including Africa, Asia, Australia & North America. Most Passiflora are vines thought to have originated in either the cooler mountains or the much hotter tropical rain forest. 

Passion flower got its name from descriptions of its flower parts supplied by priests in the 'New Spain' (South America). These were interpreted in 1609, by Jacomo Bosio in Rome, as representing various elements of the Crucifixion, five petals and five sepals (the ten disciples, minus Judas & Peter); outer fringe (the crown of thorns); five stamens (number of wounds Christ received) & knob-like stigmas of the pistil (the nails). This symbolism is not universal however, in Japan adn in Greece it is known as 'The Clock Plant'.

To survive & reproduce in these very competitive environments many species grow quickly using their tendrils to climb up trees (a very few have adapted becoming trees themselves) to reach the forest canopy & full sun, at which time the trailing stems begin to flower. To attract pollinators, such as bees, moths, butterflies & other insects, bats & hummingbirds to them rather than to other plants, Passiflora have evolved a wide variety (made wider by our man made hybrids) of stunning colourful flowers, often perfumed, with additional sweet nectar glands on leaves, petioles & sometimes bracts. In addition the fruits, which must be eaten to spread the plant over a wide area, contain a juice with a unique aromatic taste & smell. 

Classification of Passiflora was first done by Linnnaeus in 1745 when he recognised 22 species. There are now thought to be over 600, but many are under threat in their natural rainforest habitat. Hybrids were first produced in UK in the 1820's - the first one, P. x violacea, although its correct name is disputed, is still with us. Popular with the Victorians in UK, Passiflora became less fashionable in the early Twentieth Century, but now there is worldwide interest in them both as a commercial crop with new varieties being introduced & as an exotic decorative addition to gardens, conservatories & greenhouses. In addition P. incarnata is used by herbalists as a mild sedative & there may be further medicinal uses of other species.

Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) was used in traditional remedies as a "calming" herb for anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and hysteria. During the early twentieth century, this herb was included in many over-the-counter sedatives and sleep aids. In 1978, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned these preparations due to a lack of proven effectiveness. In Germany, however, passionflower is available as an over-the-counter sedative (in combination with other calming herbs such as valerian and lemon balm). It is also used in German homeopathic medicine to treat pain, insomnia, and nervous restlessness. Today, professional herbalists use passionflower (often in combination with other calming herbs) to help treat insomnia, tension, and other health problems related to anxiety and nervousness. 

Passionflowers, also called granadillas because the fruits look similar to those of pomegranate - " granada " in Spanish - produce eatable fruits, provided that they should be eaten raw to avoid being toxic. All species of this gender are eatable, although there are some that are more appropriate as food than others. 

Passiflora incarnata, it produces a fruit that sometimes reaches the size of a melon . It is generally consumed in marmalades in some southern states of USA It was already used by the old Aztecs to treat the bites of the snakes, reason why is was known as " Tongue of snake" and the first Indian natives used it like a food and as disinfectant. 

Source:
http://www.passionflow.co.uk/history.htm

http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Passionflowerch.html

http://www.botanical-online.com/texascastellaflora.htm

 

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Hookerís lips - Psychotria elata
Suicide Tree - Cerbera odollam
Konjac - Amorphophallus konjac
Madagascar ocotillo - Alluaudia procera
Water Banana - Typhonodorum lindleyanum
Salak - Salacca zalacca
Natal Plum - Carissa macrocarpa
Ashanti blood - Mussaenda erythrophylla
Duranta - Duranta erecta
Maqui - Aristotelia chilensis
Manuka - New Zealand Tea Tree - Leptospermum scoparium
Suriname cherry - Eugenia uniflora
Australian Finger Lime - Citrus australasica
Sacred Flower of the Incas - Cantua buxifolia
Job's tears - Coix Lacryma-jobi
Velvet Bean - Mucuna pruriens
Java Apple - Syzygium samarangense
Screwpine - Pandanus utilis
Marimo - Aegagropila linnaei
Achocha/Caigua - Inca cucumber - Cyclanthera pedata
Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis
Sugar cane - Saccharum officinarum
Sacha inchi - Plukenetia volubilis
Coffea - Coffee Tree - Coffea arabica
Liquorice - Licorice - Glycyrrhiza glabra
Mullein -Verbascum thapsus
Iceplant - Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Chayote - Sechium edule
Roselle - Hibiscus sabdariffa
Black Goji - Lycium ruthenicum Murray
Rose Cactus - Pereskia grandifolia
Durian - Durio zibethinus
Jackfruit tree - Artocarpus heterophyllus
Cassabanana - Sicana odorifera
Chilean myrtle - Arrayan - Luma apiculata
Kurrajong - Brachychiton populneus
Rice-paper Plant -Tetrapanax papyrifer
Shell Ginger - Alpinia zerumbet
Harlequin Glorybower - Clerodendrum trichotomum
Coco de Mer - Lodoicea maldivica
Silver Tree - Leucadendron argenteum
Buffaloberry - Shepherdia argentea
Himalayan Honeysuckle - Leycesteria formosa
Raisin Tree - Hovenia dulcis
Borojo - Alibertia patinoi - Borojoa patinoi
Butterfly Pea - Clitoria ternatea
Honey Flower - Melianthus major
Ombu - Phytolacca dioica
Lion's Ear - Wild Dagga - Leonotis leonurus
Moringa - Miracle Tree - Moringa oleifera
Sea Daffodil - Pancratium maritimum
Spear Lily - Gymea - Doryanthes
Camphor tree - Cinnamomum camphora
Waterwheel - Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Flowering rush - Butomus umbellatus
Four o'clock - Marvel of Peru - Mirabilis jalapa
Dead Manís Fingers - Decaisnea
Bitter Melon - Momordica charantia
Shoapnuts Tree - Shoapberry - Sapindus
Acerola - Malpighia
Monkey Ladder - Sea Heart - Entada gigas
Cherimoya - Annona cherimola
Caper - Capparis spinosa
Lithops - Living Stones
Chaste Tree - Vitex agnus-castus
Chilean Lantern Tree - Crinodendron hookerianum
Parrot's Beak - Lotus berthelotii
Water Hyacinth - Eichhornia crassipes
Guaiac Tree - Guaiacum officinale - Lignum-vitae
Mickey Mouse bush - Ochna serrulata
Cow's Udder - Solanum mammosum
Miracle fruit - Synsepalum dulcificum
Akebia - Akebia quinata
Chilean Firebush - Embothrium coccineum
Caesalpinia - Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Welwitschia - Welwitschia mirabilis
Saguaro - Carnegiea gigantea
Schisandra - Schisandra chinensis
Monarda - Bee balm - Bergamot
Tamarind - Tamarindus indica
Neomarica - Walking Iris
Red hot poker - Kniphofia - Tritoma
Sikkim rhubarb - Rheum nobile
Reseda - Mignonette
Paulownia - Paulownia tomentosa
Belamcanda chinensis - Leopard lily
Blue Poppy - Meconopsis
Cannonball Tree - Couroupita guianensis
Tamarillo - Cyphomandra betacea
Goji - Wolfberry - Lycium barbarum
Vanilla - Vanilla Planifolia
Stevia - Stevia rebaudiana
Pachypodium
Physalis
Ceropegia
Sturt pea - Swainsona formosa
Clematis
Grevillea
Jade vine - Strongylodon macrobotrys
Sansevieria - Snake Plant
Trochetia
Yareta - Azorella compacta
African tulip tree - Spathodea campanulata
Angel's Trumpets - Brugmansia
Achiote - Annato - Bixa orellana
Sausage Tree - Kigelia pinnata
Castor Oil Plant - Ricinus communis
Firewheel Tree - Stenocarpus sinuatus
Bat Flower - Tacca
Snake gourd - Trichosanthes cucumerina
Sedum
Hydnora - Hydnora africana
Pickerel Weed - Pontederia
Argan - Argania spinosa
Astilbe - False Goats Beard
Feijoa - Pineapple Guava - Acca sellowiana
Aquilegia - Columbine
Cassiope
Sweet Box - Sarcococca
Christmas Cactus - Schlumbergera
Foxtail Lily - Eremurus
Rue - Ruta graveolens
Pittosporum
Ylang-Ylang - Cananga odorata
Rose of Jericho - Anastatica hierochuntica
Gunnera
Waterlily - Nymphaea
Calico Flower - Aristolochia
Daylily - Hemerocallis
Contorted hazel - Corylus avellana Contorta
Torch Ginger - Etlingera elatior
Mistletoe - Viscum album
Devil´s claw - Harpagophytum procumbens
Teasel - Dipsacus
Pampas grass - Gynerium argenteum - Cortaderia Selloanna
Purple coneflower - Echinacea purpurea
Coral Tree - Erythrina crista-galli
Portulaca
Lobelia
Field Poppy - Papaver Rhoeas
Narcissus - Daffodil
Mimosa pudica - Sensitive Plant
Boxwood - Buxus sempervirens
Firethorn - Pyracantha
Star of Bethlehem - Ornithogalum
Cosmos
Muscari - Grape Hyacinth
Papyrus - Cyperus papyrus
Zinnia
Honeysuckle - Lonicera
Passiflora - Passion Flower
Calendula - Marigold
Lupine - Lupinus
Canna - Indian Shot
Witch Hazel - Hamamelis
Oak - Quercus
Brunsvigia - Candelabra Flower
Tree peony - Paeonia suffruticosa
Olive - Olea europaea
Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
Desert rose - Adenium obesum
Oleander - Nerium Oleander
Abutilon
Sweet Pea - Lathyrus odoratus
Chaenomeles - Flowering Quince
Forsythia
Amaryllis - Hippeastrum
Butchers broom - Ruscus aculeatus
Bay Laurel - Laurus nobilis
Gloriosa
Bamboo
Gladiolus
Artichoke - Cynara scolymus
Clivia - Clivia Miniata
Dipladenia - Dipladenia sanderii
Date palm - Phoenix dactylifera
Peach - Prunus persica
Almond - Prunus amygdalus
Willow - Salix
Pomegranate - Punica granatum
Protea cynaroides
Colchicum autumnale
Bird of Paradise - Strelitzia reginae
Cardon - Pachycereus pringlei
Wolffia arrhiza
Puya raimondii
Fuchsia
Asphodelus - Asphodel
Primula - Primerose
Dicentra spectabilis - Bleeding Heart
Edelweiss - Leontopodium alpinum
Helleborus Niger - Christmas Rose
Zantedeschia - Calla Lily
Fritillaria imperialis - Crown imperial
Aster
Heliconia
Common Sunflower - Helianthus annuus
Bee Orchid - Orphys apifera
Convalaria majalis - Lily of the Valley - Muguet
Syringa Vurgaris - Lilac
Viola
Impantiens
Snowdrop - Galanthus
Poinsettia - Euphorbia pulcherrima
Dionaea muscipula
Banksia
Sea anemone
Amorrhophallus titanum
Rafflesia arnoldi

 

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