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Valentine.gr  

July 2017

Did you know thath the water banana (Typhonodorum lindleyanum) is named for its resemblance to a banana plant, but is actually a large aquatic aroid? 

Water Banana (Typhonodorum lindleyanum)

Water Banana - Typhonodorum lindleyanum

Typhonodorum is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. The single species making up this genus is Typhonodorum lindleyanum. The genus is native to Madagascar, the Comores, Zanzibar, and Mauritius. This genus is believed to be closely related to Peltandra even though Peltandra is only found in North America and there don't appear to exist closely related genera in the African mainland. There isn't fossil evidence to link the two genera so it has been proposed that there once was a genus in Africa from which the two genera had originated. The African mainland genus spread to North America and to Madagascar 50 million years ago before it broke off. Then the African genus became extinct and the North American and Madagascan genera remained.

Typhonodorum lindleyanum or Water Banana is the only member of the genus Typhonodorum. It has a truly striking appearance: the looks of a banana plant with large leaves like a taro.

Typhonodorum lindleyanum found near the banks of muddy streams or in marshes. Usually found in pure stands in fresh water swamps near the sea.

Typhonodorum lindleyanum is a perennial plant producing a stout, banana-like, pseudostem up to 30cm in diameter topped with a rosette of leaves from a short horizontal fleshy rhizome. The plant is usually 1.5 to 2.5 metres tall, but can be up to 4 metres.

The pseudostem is formed by brown, dead leaf sheaths. The projecting portion of the petiole is 30-100 cm long, green and succulent, with numerous leaves. The leaf is subtriangular to arrow-shaped, light green, 70-140 cm long and 55-85 cm wide. The leaf discs of young plants are narrower. The midrib is quite wide: 1-1.5 cm at the base.

The petiole is erect, 40-50 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. After flowering, it hangs down. The spathe is 45-80 cm long, narrowed between the male and female flowers, rolled up to form a tube towards the base. The spadix is yellow, 35-55 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. Blooms throughout the year.

The infrutescence is 17 cm long and 12 cm in diameter, the spathe becomes green, then putrid at maturity of the fruit. The fruit is a spherical to ovoid berry, 4 cm in diameter, bright yellow, with one and sometimes two seeds. The seeds are flattened, 3?3 cm and 1.5 cm thick, greenish brown.

The plant is harvested from the wild and used locally, providing a food of very dubious value plus medicines and a good quality fibre. The plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental.

In the tropics, it can grow in the garden throughout the year. In temperate regions you can treat it as an orangery plant: indoors in winter and outdoors in summer. It can also be grown as a houseplant or in a heated greenhouse. In the tropics, this is an invasive species.

Etymology: Typhonodorum: from the Greek typhos (typhoon, hurricane) and doron (gift) Lindleyanum: in honor of John Lindley, renowned English botanist (1817-1898). Common names: Water Banana, mangaoka, mangibo, viha, via, mgombakofi, mtongonya

fruits and rhizome are poisonous but eaten locally after prolonged boiling

Rhizome- must be thoroughly cooked. An edible starch is obtained from this rhizome by drying the grated base of the plant over a slow fire. In spite of the action of the fire, however, this starch causes an itching in the mouth and even in the oesophagus[644]. It is more common, when rendering the roots of plants in this family edible, to bake them for some time at high temperatures, often pounding them into a powder and then baking them again. This is a more effective way of destroying the toxins, though even then it is not unheard of for people to experience itching of the mouth.

The tuber can be peeled then cut into small slices which are boiled and washed several times in order to remove some of the toxic matter. Coconut milk is then added and the whole is eaten[398]. Alternatively, the slices can be soaked in water for two days and then dried in the sun. The dried slices are pounded into a flour which is cooked into ugali. The root is mainly viewed as a famine food, eaten when there is nothing better available.

Fruit  cooked. It needs to be boiled for a long time[46]. The same comments apply to the fruit as they do to the rhizome.

The starch from the rhizome is considered an excellent remedy against the bites of venomous animals.


Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhonodorum
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Typhonodorum+lindleyanum
https://myjunglegarden.com/2015/11/typhonodorum-lindleyanum/#.WVOkddGQwdU

 

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Champak - Magnolia champaca
Hookerís lips - Psychotria elata
Suicide Tree - Cerbera odollam
Konjac - Amorphophallus konjac
Madagascar ocotillo - Alluaudia procera
Water Banana - Typhonodorum lindleyanum
Salak - Salacca zalacca
Natal Plum - Carissa macrocarpa
Ashanti blood - Mussaenda erythrophylla
Duranta - Duranta erecta
Maqui - Aristotelia chilensis
Manuka - New Zealand Tea Tree - Leptospermum scoparium
Suriname cherry - Eugenia uniflora
Australian Finger Lime - Citrus australasica
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Velvet Bean - Mucuna pruriens
Java Apple - Syzygium samarangense
Screwpine - Pandanus utilis
Marimo - Aegagropila linnaei
Achocha/Caigua - Inca cucumber - Cyclanthera pedata
Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis
Sugar cane - Saccharum officinarum
Sacha inchi - Plukenetia volubilis
Coffea - Coffee Tree - Coffea arabica
Liquorice - Licorice - Glycyrrhiza glabra
Mullein -Verbascum thapsus
Iceplant - Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Chayote - Sechium edule
Roselle - Hibiscus sabdariffa
Black Goji - Lycium ruthenicum Murray
Rose Cactus - Pereskia grandifolia
Durian - Durio zibethinus
Jackfruit tree - Artocarpus heterophyllus
Cassabanana - Sicana odorifera
Chilean myrtle - Arrayan - Luma apiculata
Kurrajong - Brachychiton populneus
Rice-paper Plant -Tetrapanax papyrifer
Shell Ginger - Alpinia zerumbet
Harlequin Glorybower - Clerodendrum trichotomum
Coco de Mer - Lodoicea maldivica
Silver Tree - Leucadendron argenteum
Buffaloberry - Shepherdia argentea
Himalayan Honeysuckle - Leycesteria formosa
Raisin Tree - Hovenia dulcis
Borojo - Alibertia patinoi - Borojoa patinoi
Butterfly Pea - Clitoria ternatea
Honey Flower - Melianthus major
Ombu - Phytolacca dioica
Lion's Ear - Wild Dagga - Leonotis leonurus
Moringa - Miracle Tree - Moringa oleifera
Sea Daffodil - Pancratium maritimum
Spear Lily - Gymea - Doryanthes
Camphor tree - Cinnamomum camphora
Waterwheel - Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Flowering rush - Butomus umbellatus
Four o'clock - Marvel of Peru - Mirabilis jalapa
Dead Manís Fingers - Decaisnea
Bitter Melon - Momordica charantia
Shoapnuts Tree - Shoapberry - Sapindus
Acerola - Malpighia
Monkey Ladder - Sea Heart - Entada gigas
Cherimoya - Annona cherimola
Caper - Capparis spinosa
Lithops - Living Stones
Chaste Tree - Vitex agnus-castus
Chilean Lantern Tree - Crinodendron hookerianum
Parrot's Beak - Lotus berthelotii
Water Hyacinth - Eichhornia crassipes
Guaiac Tree - Guaiacum officinale - Lignum-vitae
Mickey Mouse bush - Ochna serrulata
Cow's Udder - Solanum mammosum
Miracle fruit - Synsepalum dulcificum
Akebia - Akebia quinata
Chilean Firebush - Embothrium coccineum
Caesalpinia - Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Welwitschia - Welwitschia mirabilis
Saguaro - Carnegiea gigantea
Schisandra - Schisandra chinensis
Monarda - Bee balm - Bergamot
Tamarind - Tamarindus indica
Neomarica - Walking Iris
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Sikkim rhubarb - Rheum nobile
Reseda - Mignonette
Paulownia - Paulownia tomentosa
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Blue Poppy - Meconopsis
Cannonball Tree - Couroupita guianensis
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Vanilla - Vanilla Planifolia
Stevia - Stevia rebaudiana
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Sturt pea - Swainsona formosa
Clematis
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Jade vine - Strongylodon macrobotrys
Sansevieria - Snake Plant
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Yareta - Azorella compacta
African tulip tree - Spathodea campanulata
Angel's Trumpets - Brugmansia
Achiote - Annato - Bixa orellana
Sausage Tree - Kigelia pinnata
Castor Oil Plant - Ricinus communis
Firewheel Tree - Stenocarpus sinuatus
Bat Flower - Tacca
Snake gourd - Trichosanthes cucumerina
Sedum
Hydnora - Hydnora africana
Pickerel Weed - Pontederia
Argan - Argania spinosa
Astilbe - False Goats Beard
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Aquilegia - Columbine
Cassiope
Sweet Box - Sarcococca
Christmas Cactus - Schlumbergera
Foxtail Lily - Eremurus
Rue - Ruta graveolens
Pittosporum
Ylang-Ylang - Cananga odorata
Rose of Jericho - Anastatica hierochuntica
Gunnera
Waterlily - Nymphaea
Calico Flower - Aristolochia
Daylily - Hemerocallis
Contorted hazel - Corylus avellana Contorta
Torch Ginger - Etlingera elatior
Mistletoe - Viscum album
Devil´s claw - Harpagophytum procumbens
Teasel - Dipsacus
Pampas grass - Gynerium argenteum - Cortaderia Selloanna
Purple coneflower - Echinacea purpurea
Coral Tree - Erythrina crista-galli
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Field Poppy - Papaver Rhoeas
Narcissus - Daffodil
Mimosa pudica - Sensitive Plant
Boxwood - Buxus sempervirens
Firethorn - Pyracantha
Star of Bethlehem - Ornithogalum
Cosmos
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Papyrus - Cyperus papyrus
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Honeysuckle - Lonicera
Passiflora - Passion Flower
Calendula - Marigold
Lupine - Lupinus
Canna - Indian Shot
Witch Hazel - Hamamelis
Oak - Quercus
Brunsvigia - Candelabra Flower
Tree peony - Paeonia suffruticosa
Olive - Olea europaea
Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
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Oleander - Nerium Oleander
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Sweet Pea - Lathyrus odoratus
Chaenomeles - Flowering Quince
Forsythia
Amaryllis - Hippeastrum
Butchers broom - Ruscus aculeatus
Bay Laurel - Laurus nobilis
Gloriosa
Bamboo
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Artichoke - Cynara scolymus
Clivia - Clivia Miniata
Dipladenia - Dipladenia sanderii
Date palm - Phoenix dactylifera
Peach - Prunus persica
Almond - Prunus amygdalus
Willow - Salix
Pomegranate - Punica granatum
Protea cynaroides
Colchicum autumnale
Bird of Paradise - Strelitzia reginae
Cardon - Pachycereus pringlei
Wolffia arrhiza
Puya raimondii
Fuchsia
Asphodelus - Asphodel
Primula - Primerose
Dicentra spectabilis - Bleeding Heart
Edelweiss - Leontopodium alpinum
Helleborus Niger - Christmas Rose
Zantedeschia - Calla Lily
Fritillaria imperialis - Crown imperial
Aster
Heliconia
Common Sunflower - Helianthus annuus
Bee Orchid - Orphys apifera
Convalaria majalis - Lily of the Valley - Muguet
Syringa Vurgaris - Lilac
Viola
Impantiens
Snowdrop - Galanthus
Poinsettia - Euphorbia pulcherrima
Dionaea muscipula
Banksia
Sea anemone
Amorrhophallus titanum
Rafflesia arnoldi

 

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